Table of Contents

How do I format titles of books, articles, plays, etc.?

Titles should be put in quotation marks or italicized or underlined:

  • Italicize (if typing) or underline (if handwriting) for…
    • Books (A Tale of Two Cities)
    • Plays (Macbeth)
    • Magazines, journals, newspapers (The Wall Street Journal)
    • Movies, TV shows, and radio programs (Chariots of Fire)
    • Long musical compositions and titles of albums (The Marriage of Figaro)
    • Paintings, sculptures, and other works of art (Starry Night)
  • Use quotation marks for:
    • Book chapters (“The Second World War”)
    • Short stories, short poems, and essays (“The Tell-Tale Heart”)
    • Article titles (“What Is Classical Education?”)
    • Individual episodes of TV programs (“Goodbye, Farewell and Amen”)
    • Short musical compositions and recordings (“The Star-Spangled Banner”)
    • Theses, dissertations, and lectures (“The Scopes Trial in American Memory”)
  • Do not use quotation marks or italics or underlines for…
    • The Bible, books from the Bible, or other religious texts (Ephesians)
    • Websites and databases: (The Database of Religious History)
    • Laws or political documents (The Declaration of Independence)

Chicago Manual of Style Notes & Bibliographies

In your paper you will need to use three types of citations:

  1. Notes – The first time a work is cited, its full publication information should be included in a footnote.

  2. Shortened Notes – After a work has been cited once, a shortened form may be used in a footnote.

  3. Bibliographical Entries – At the end of the paper, a “Works Cited” page should be included listing out every source used in a footnote. Entries should be listed in alphabetical order.

Use the following website to look up how to cite books, articles, websites, etc. The navigation menu on the left will help you find what you are looking for.

Excelsior Online Writing Lab


Citing a Book


1. FirstName LastName, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Publication Date), page number.

1. Antony Penrose, The Lives of Lee Miller (London: Thames and Hudson, 1985), 191.

Shortened Footnote

2. Penrose, Lives of Lee Miller, 42.


Penrose, Antony. The Lives of Lee Miller. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985.